Although many features of Strads are present in the copies, they still remain heavily influenced by Guadagnini's workshop principles and represent well the maker's Turin period.  Stradivari's early (pre-1684) violins are in strong contrast to Amati's instruments from the same time period; Stradivari's have a stronger, more masculine build, and less rounded curves, with the purfling set farther in. Some researchers believe early instruments by Stradivari bear a stronger resemblance to Francesco Rugeri's work than Amati's. , Stradivari's early career is marked by wide experimentation, and his instruments during this period are generally considered of a lesser quality than his later work. Antonio Stradivari is almost universally regarded as the greatest violin maker in history, and the value of his instruments reflects that exalted status. Omissions? It is estimated that Stradivari produced 1,116 instruments, of which 960 were violins. They had five children from 1700 to 1708—Francesca Maria, Giovanni Battista Giuseppe, Giovanni Battista Martino, Giuseppe Antonio, and Paolo..  W.E. Zambelli was left with her clothing, bed linens, household items, and half of her jewelry. Stradivari generated substantial wealth in his lifetime. Late-period instruments made from the late 1720s until his death in 1737 show signs of Stradivari's advancing age. His first labels were printed from 1660 to 1665, which indicates that his work had sufficient quality to be offered directly to his patrons. ), Kalbacker, Warren. Having acquired many Strads from Paolo Stradivari, Count Cozio commissioned Giovanni Battista Guadagnini to make some replicas of the instruments. Some of his early violins were smaller, with notable exception to this is the 1679 Hellier violin, which had much larger proportions. Haweis, Shoenbaum, David, The Violin: A Social History of the World's Most Versatile Instrument, Norton, 2013, p. 31, Woodstra, Chris, Brennan, Gerald & Allen Schrott (eds.  On 14 October 2010, a 1697 Stradivari violin known as "The Molitor" was sold online by Tarisio Auctions for a world-record price of $3,600,000 to violinist Anne Akiko Meyers: at the time its price was the highest for any musical instrument sold at auction. Notably it omits the A+S stamp that occurs on Antonio's labels.  The Soil of 1714 is owned by virtuoso Itzhak Perlman. Antonio Stradivari, Latin Stradivarius, (born 1644?, Cremona, Duchy of Milan—died Dec. 18, 1737, Cremona), Italian violin maker who brought the craft of violin-making to its highest pitch of perfection.  The fate of these instruments is unknown. This label has never been found or confirmed. His remaining two sons from his first marriage had both worked in the family shop.  However, there are no records or information available on his early childhood, and the first evidence of his presence in Cremona is the label of his oldest surviving violin from 1666. Additionally, the utilization of a small dorsal pin or small hole, invariably used not just by Nicolò Amati but all of his recognized pupils—with the exception of Antonio Stradivari, adds further evidence that Stradivari may have learnt his craft apart from Amati.  However, the precision with which he carved the heads and inserted the purfling quickly marked him as one of the most dextrous craftsmen in the world, a prime example of this being the 1690 "Tuscan" violin. These at first followed the smaller of Amati’s models, solidly constructed, with a thick yellow varnish. Corrections?  M. Chanot-Chardon, a well-known French luthier, asserted that his father had a label of Stradivari's stating, "Made at the age of thirteen, in the workshop of Nicolò Amati". In 1684 Stradivari began to produce larger models, using a deeper-coloured varnish and experimenting with minute details in the form of the instrument. The 1668 and 1678 censuses report him actually growing younger, a fact explained by the probable loss of statistics from 1647–49, when renewed belligerency between France's Modenese and Spain's Milanese proxies led to a flow of refugees that included Stradivari's mother.